In this research we developed OPOS, an observation scheme for evaluating head-up games, a form of pervasive outdoor games. OPOS can be used to evaluate the similarities between digitally enhanced outdoor games and traditional outdoor games such as tag or hide-and-seek. OPOS was tested on a purpose built head-up game.
The concept of Head-Up Games advocates that pervasive games of the future should be designed to evoke play patterns akin to those of traditional outdoor games. This tenet, while appealing, is ill defined without a clear description of these behaviors. We developed OPOS, an observation scheme that can be used to evaluate Head-Up Games and, more generally, outdoor pervasive games intended for children. The observation scheme has been evaluated through its application in observing play with traditional outdoor games and a purpose made Head-Up Game. The study involved 24 children of 10-11 years old; it was found that the proposed observation scheme is objective and reliable, helping evaluators compare pervasive games regarding the play behaviors they provoke.
Soute, I., Bakker, S., Magielse, R., and Markopoulos, P. (2013). Evaluating player experience for children's outdoor pervasive games. Entertainment Computing, 4(1), pp. 25-38. Access online
Bakker, S., Markopoulos, P., and Kort, Y. de (2008). OPOS: an observation scheme for evaluating head-up play. In Proceedings of the NordiCHI'08 Nordic Conference on Human-computer Interaction, pp. 33-42. Access online